Ethics and Community overview Hinduism is a collective term applied to the many philosophical and religious traditions native to India. Hinduism has neither a specific moment of origin nor a specific founder.
Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. The history of Hinduism The history of Hinduism in India can be traced to about bce. Sources of Hinduism Indo-European sources The earliest literary source for the history of Hinduism is the Rigvedaconsisting of hymns that were composed chiefly during the last two or three centuries of the 2nd millennium bce.
The religious life reflected in this text is not that of contemporary Hinduism but of an earlier sacrificial religious system, referred to by scholars as Brahmanism or Vedismwhich developed in India among Indo-European -speaking peoples.
Scholars from the period of British colonial rule postulated that this branch of a related group of nomadic and seminomadic tribal peoples, originally inhabiting the steppe country of southern Russia and Central Asiabrought with them the horse and chariot and the Sanskrit language.
These scholars further Origins of hinduism that other branches of these peoples penetrated into Europe, bringing with them the Indo-European languages that developed into the chief language groups now spoken there.
These theories have been disputed, however, and the historical homeland of the Indo-Europeans continues to be a matter of academic and political controversy. The Vedic people were in close contact with the ancestors of the Iranians, as evidenced by similarities between Sanskrit and the earliest surviving Iranian languages.
Thus, the religion of the Rigveda contains elements from three strata: Hinduism arose from multiple sources and from the geniuses of individual reformers in all periods. Present-day Hinduism contains few direct survivals from its Indo-European heritage.
Some of the elements of the Hindu wedding ceremony, notably the circumambulation of the sacred fire and the cult of the domestic fire itself, are rooted in the remote Indo-European past.
The same is probably true of some aspects of the ancestor cult. Another example of the common Indo-Iranian heritage is the Vedic god Varuna. A third example can be seen in the sacred drink somawhich corresponds to the sacred haoma of Zoroastrianism. Even in the earlier parts of the Rigveda, however, the religion displays numerous Indian features that are not evident in Indo-Iranian traditions.
Some of the chief gods, for example, have no clear Indo-European or Indo-Iranian counterparts. Although some of these features may have evolved entirely within the Vedic framework, it is generally presumed that many of them stem from the influence of inhabitants of the Indian subcontinent who had no connection with Indo-European peoples.
Some scholars have further argued that the ruling classes of the Indus civilizationalso called the Harappa culture c. But there is little supporting evidence for this claim, and the presence of Dravidian speakers throughout the whole subcontinent at any time in history is not attested.
From the time of the Vedas c. This development resulted from the desire of lower-class groups to rise on the social ladder by adopting the ways and beliefs of the higher castes. Further, many local deities were identified with the gods and goddesses of the Puranas.
Sanskritization still continues in the form of the conversion of tribal groups, and it is reflected in the persistence of the tendency among some Hindus to identify rural and local deities with the gods of the Sanskrit texts.
Sanskritization also refers to the process by which some Hindus try to raise their status by adopting high-caste customs, such as wearing the sacred cord and becoming vegetarians.
If Sanskritization has been the main means of connecting the various local traditions throughout the subcontinent, the converse process, which has no convenient label, has been one of the means whereby Hinduism has changed and developed over the centuries.
Many features of Hindu mythology and several popular gods—such as Ganeshaan elephant-headed god, and Hanumanthe monkey god—were incorporated into Hinduism and assimilated into the appropriate Vedic gods by this means.
Similarly, the worship of many goddesses who are now regarded as the consorts of the great male Hindu gods, as well as the worship of individual unmarried goddesses, may have arisen from the worship of non-Vedic local goddesses.
Thus, the history of Hinduism can be interpreted as the interplay between orthoprax custom and the practices of wider ranges of people and, complementarily, as the survival of features of local traditions that gained strength steadily until they were adapted by the Brahmans.
The prehistoric period 3rd and 2nd millennia bce Indigenous prehistoric religion The prehistoric culture of the Indus valley arose in the latter centuries of the 3rd millennium bce from the metal-using village cultures of the region.
There is considerable evidence of the material life of the Indus people, but its interpretation remains a matter of speculation until their writing is deciphered.
Enough evidence exists, however, to show that several features of later Hinduism may have had prehistoric origins. In most of the village cultures, small terra-cotta figurines of women, found in large quantities, have been interpreted as icons of a fertility deity whose cult was widespread in the Mediterranean area and in western Asia from Neolithic times c.
This hypothesis is strengthened by the fact that the goddess was apparently associated with the bull —a feature also found in the ancient religions farther west. Religion in the Indus valley civilization The Harappa culture, located in what is now Pakistanhas produced much evidence of what may have been a cult of a goddess and a bull.
Figurines of both occur, female figures being more common, while the bull appears more frequently on the many steatite seals. A horned figure, possibly with three faces, occurs on a few seals, and on one seal he is surrounded by animals. A few male figurines, one apparently in a dancing posture, may represent deities.
No building has been discovered at any Harappan site that can be positively identified as a temple, but the Great Bath at Mohenjo-daro may have been used for ritual purposes, as were the ghats bathing steps on riverbanks attached to later Hindu temples.The history of Hinduism is unique among the world religions in that it has no founder or date of origin.
While most major religions derive from new ideas taught by a charismatic leader, Hinduism is simply the religion of the people of India, which has gradually developed over four thousand years.
Hinduism attaches a very special value to the the darsán (a sanskrit word meaning sight), of gurus, leaders, saintly persons and even holy places and holy images. According to the Hindus, darsán is a two-way flow of vision.
Hinduism is a fusion or synthesis of various Indian cultures and traditions. Among the roots of Hinduism are the historical Vedic religion of Iron Age India, itself already the product of "a composite of the Indo-Aryan and Harappan cultures and civilizations", but also the Sramana or renouncer traditions of northeast India, and.
Hinduism, major world religion originating on the Indian subcontinent and comprising several and varied systems of philosophy, belief, and lausannecongress2018.comgh the name Hinduism is relatively new, having been coined by British writers in the first decades of the 19th century, it refers to a rich cumulative tradition of texts and practices, some of which date to the 2nd millennium bce or possibly.
Hinduism - The history of Hinduism: The history of Hinduism in India can be traced to about bce. Evidence of Hinduism’s early antecedents is derived from archaeology, comparative philology, and comparative religion. The earliest literary source for the history of Hinduism is the Rigveda, consisting of hymns that were composed chiefly during the last two or three centuries of the 2nd.
The history of Hinduism is unique among the world religions in that it has no founder or date of origin. While most major religions derive from new ideas taught by a charismatic leader, Hinduism is simply the religion of the people of India, which has gradually developed over four thousand years.