Hiv case study answers

However, the sensations in both sexes are extremely pleasurable and are often felt throughout the body, causing a mental state that is often described as transcendental, and with vasocongestion and associated pleasure comparable to that of a full-contractionary orgasm. For example, modern findings support distinction between ejaculation and male orgasm. Orgasm may also be achieved by the use of a sex toysuch as a sensual vibrator or an erotic electrostimulation.

Hiv case study answers

You can get or transmit HIV only through specific activities. Most commonly, people get or transmit HIV through sexual behaviors and needle or syringe use. Only certain body fluids -- blood, semen cumpre-seminal fluid pre-cumrectal fluids, vaginal fluids, and breast milk -- from a person who has HIV can transmit HIV.

These fluids must come in contact with a mucous membrane or damaged tissue or be directly injected into the bloodstream from a needle or syringe for transmission to occur. Mucous membranes are found inside the rectum, vagina, penis, and mouth.

Anal sex is the highest-risk sexual behavior. For the HIV-negative partner, receptive anal sex bottoming is riskier than insertive anal sex topping. Vaginal sex is the second-highest-risk sexual behavior. Sharing needles or syringes, rinse water, or other equipment works used to prepare drugs for injection with someone who has HIV.

HIV can live in a used needle up to 42 days depending on temperature and other factors. Less commonly, HIV may be spread From mother to child during pregnancy, birth, or breastfeeding. Although the risk can be high if a mother is living with HIV and not taking medicine, recommendations to test all pregnant women for Hiv case study answers and start HIV treatment immediately have lowered the number of babies who are born with HIV.

By being stuck with an HIV-contaminated needle or other sharp object. This is a risk mainly for health care workers. In extremely rare cases, HIV has been transmitted by Oral sex -- putting the mouth on the penis fellatiovagina cunnilingusor anus rimming.

In general, there's little to no risk of getting HIV from oral sex. But transmission of HIV, though extremely rare, is theoretically possible if an HIV-positive man ejaculates in his partner's mouth during oral sex.

This was more common in the early years of HIV, but now the risk is extremely small because of rigorous testing of the US blood supply and donated organs and tissues. Eating food that has been pre-chewed by an HIV-infected person. The contamination occurs when infected blood from a caregiver's mouth mixes with food while chewing.

The only known cases are among infants. Being bitten by a person with HIV.

Teaching Notes

Each of the very small number of documented cases has involved severe trauma with extensive tissue damage and the presence of blood. There is no risk of transmission if the skin is not broken. Contact between broken skin, wounds, or mucous membranes and HIV-infected blood or blood-contaminated body fluids.

Deep, open-mouth kissing if both partners have sores or bleeding gums and blood from the HIV-positive partner gets into the bloodstream of the HIV-negative partner. HIV is not spread through saliva.

HIV does not survive long outside the human body such as on surfacesand it cannot reproduce outside a human host. It is not spread by Mosquitoes, ticks, or other insects. Saliva, tears, or sweat that is not mixed with the blood of an HIV-positive person. Hugging, shaking hands, sharing toilets, sharing dishes, or closed-mouth or "social" kissing with someone who is HIV-positive.

Other sexual activities that don't involve the exchange of body fluids for example, touching. In fact, anal sex is the riskiest type of sex for getting or transmitting HIV.

HIV can be found in certain body fluids -- blood, semen cumpre-seminal fluid pre-cumor rectal fluids -- of a person who has HIV. Although receptive anal sex bottoming is much riskier for getting HIV than insertive anal sex toppingit's possible for either partner -- the top or the bottom -- to get HIV.

The bottom's risk is very high because the lining of the rectum is thin and may allow HIV to enter the body during anal sex. The top is also at risk because HIV can enter the body through the opening at the tip of the penis or urethra ; the foreskin if the penis isn't circumcised; or small cuts, scratches, or open sores anywhere on the penis.EIS Case Studies: Student Guides and Details.

An Epidemic of Thyrotoxicosis. Screening for Antibody to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Case study of a hypothetical health department anticipating the release of the first HIV antibody test in Focus is on screening. Updated in Learning Objectives.

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Annual HIV infections a and diagnoses b are declining in the United States. The declines may be due to targeted HIV prevention efforts.

However, progress has been uneven, and annual infections and diagnoses have increased among some groups. The present study looked at HIV-serodifferent couples from the two studies where the woman was the HIV-negative partner and aged between 18 and 49, and the HIV-positive male partner was not on antiretroviral therapy.

Case studies Chronological order. Country-enhanced monitoring and evaluation for antiretroviral therapy scale-up: analysis and use of strategic information in Botswana. Biology Forums - Study Force is the leading provider of online homework help for college and high school students.

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EDITOR’S NOTE: Although the underlying ideas and messages in this article remain relevant, much HIV prevention research has been published since , notably about there being effectively no risk of transmitting the virus if you are HIV positive and undetectable (a.k.a.

Hiv case study answers

treatment as prevention, or TasP), as well as the effectiveness of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP).

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