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By Catharine Paddock PhD The ancestors of Native American populations from the tip of Chile in the south to Canada in the north, migrated from Asia in at least three waves, according to a new international study published online in Nature this week that involved over 60 investigators in 11 countries in the Americas, plus four in Europe, and Russia.
In what they describe as the most comprehensive survey of genetic diversity in Native Americans so far, the researchers studied variation in Native American DNA sequences.
They found that while most Native American populations descend primarily from one migration, there were two later ones that also made a significant genetic contribution. The first migration, that led to the majority of Native American populations, was of a single group called the "First Americans" that crossed from Asia to America in a land bridge called Beringia, that existed during the ice ages more than 15, years ago, say the researchers, whose efforts were co-ordinated by Professor Andres Ruiz-Linares of the department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment at University College London UCL in the UK.
The later migrants probably arrived in boats, after the land-bridge disappeared at the end of the ice ages. In a press statement, Ruiz-Linares explains that for years there has been a debate about whether the settlement of the Americas came from one or several migrations out of Siberia.
Native Americans do not stem from a single migration. Our study also begins to cast light on patterns of human dispersal within the Americas," he adds. The findings confirm what linguist Joseph Greenberg proposed in From studying language differences among Native Americans, he said the Americas must have been populated in three waves of migration.
For the study, the researchers searched more thanspecific DNA markers or "snips" SNPs, Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms from 52 Native American and 17 Siberian groups, looking for similar and different patterns of genes. The analysis also showed that once these waves of migrations arrived in the Americas, the groups expanded southwards, hugging the coastline, splitting off along the way.
After they split off, the groups mixed very little with each other, especially the ones that ended up in South America. But while non-mixing appeared to be the general pattern after dispersal, the researchers found two striking exceptions. One shows a North-South re-mix, and the other a West-East re-mix.
In the North-South re-mix, it looks like there was some back-migration from South America northwards, and this is reflected in the genomes of Central American Chibchan-speakers, which contains DNA from two widely separated strands of Native ancestry.
The analysis was not straightforward, because the researchers had to find a way to rule out genes from the European and African populations that arrived in the Americas from the late 15th century onwards.
Ruiz-Linares says they managed to develop a method to "peel back" the addition of those genes to the mix, which he says "allowed us to study the history of many more Native American populations than we could have done otherwise". The team included researchers from:If you are a teacher searching for educational material, please visit PBS LearningMedia for a wide range of free digital resources spanning preschool through 12th grade.
3 women share why they don't let joint pain and stiffness stop them from running: 'It definitely serves as therapy for me — it's my church' Athletes Jeri Strachner, April Wells and Dina Rios can. LDS women are likely to develop depression due to the demanding and stressful role of being a Mormon mother in the twenty-first century.
The standard answer for LDS women's high depression rate is that they are overworked, heading large families, and struggling to meet expectations of perfection that are too high, said Dr. John H. Dickey, Ph.D. The status of Women in Ghana and their role's in Ghanian society has changed over the past few decades.
There has been a slow increase in the political participation of Ghanian women throughout history. Women are given equal rights under the constitution of Ghana, yet disparities in education, employment, and health for women remain prevalent.
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She never raises her voice. Her house is always sparkling clean and she excels in every church calling.