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Through an aggressive new product development program, Cray introduced in the mids a full range of systems from low to high end. The last of the independent supercomputing firms, Cray accepted a takeover offer from Silicon Graphics, Inc. Early History Cray Research was formed through the efforts of Seymour Cray, a recognized genius in the design of supercomputers.
Cray was born in in Chippewa Falls, Wisconsinand spent a Cray research essay devoted to tinkering with electronic gear. After service in World War II working as a radio operator and then functioning as a specialist in breaking Japanese codes, he attended the University of Minnesota, earning a bachelor of science degree in electrical engineering and another in applied mathematics, both in He decided to enter the computer industry and took a job with Engineering Research Associates, founded by William C.
Through a series of mergers, Engineering Research Associates was brought under the control of Sperry Rand Corporation. Cray soon followed him to the new company. Among his early projects at Control Data, Cray developed theone of the first computers to use transistors in place of vacuum tubes.
Control Data shared in the booming computer industry of the s, experiencing a period of rapid growth. Cray became disenchanted with the bureaucracy that this growth created and insisted that the company build him a separate research facility in his home town of Chippewa Falls. In this new facility, he came up with the CDCthe first commercial computer capable of handling three million program instructions per second.
This closeness, however, increased the heat generated by the circuits. Cray was able to introduce innovative ways of removing this heat. Intop management at the corporation halted his plans for a new computer, telling him he could continue working on it only after another computer project was completed.
Their purpose in starting the new company was to design the first supercomputer, which they ultimately named the CRAY After several years of work on the supercomputer project, in Marchthe company delivered its first computer to the National Center for Atmospheric Research.
This sale enabled it to earn back its original investment. The CRAY-1 was the fastest computer then available.
It used the technique of vector processing, which employs a system wherein a series of operations are manipulated at once as opposed to scalar processing where operations take place one at a time.
The CRAY-1 could execute 32 operations simultaneously, making it able to complete ten times the work of some larger systems. While it was delivering its first sale, the company also made its first public offering of stock. During its early years of operation, Cray Research sold its supercomputers to government laboratories and agencies.
The main application of supercomputers was in physical simulation, wherein computer models were used to analyze and forecast the response pattern likely to take place in a system composed of physical variables. Early applications of these models were in gauging the effects of nuclear weapons and in meteorology.
Since these types of applications were performed under the aegis of the government, it was felt that the market for supercomputers would be very limited. Inhowever, Cray Research was given its first order from a commercial organization. As the s began, the company decided to begin development of the next generation of supercomputers.
To concentrate his efforts on that development, Seymour Cray resigned as CEO inand in he stepped down as chairman. John Rollwagen became CEO in and chairman in Cray retained his ties with the company as an independent contractor and as a member of the board of directors. The new project called for the design and development of the CRAY-2, intended to be the first computer on the market that used chips made of gallium arsenide.
When the gallium arsenide chips were not available, Cray returned to silicon. Because the CRAY-2 project contained an element of risk due to its innovative technology, Rollwagen had the company initiate a second project based on a further upgrade of the CRAY-1 technology.
Under the direction of Steve S. This system marked the first use of multiprocessors, where a number of microprocessors are linked together to take on bigger jobs.
The more innovative CRAY-2 design had three-dimensional circuit interconnections linking circuit boards within a module.The History Of Supercomputer Information Technology Essay.
Print Reference this. Published: 23rd March, by Seymour Cray in s. Then, he was took the supercomputer market with his own and new design, he was the top person in supercomputer from until In s, there are a quantity of converters entered the supercomputer market.
Cray, grounded in decades of HPC expertise, specializes in supercomputers and solutions for storage and analytics. Let us take on your toughest challenges today. Types of Computers: An Overview.
Print Reference this. Published: 23rd March, This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers. You can view samples of our professional work here. Perhaps the best known supercomputer manufacturer is Cray Research. May 14, · How to Write a Research Essay Three Parts: Researching a Topic Organizing your Essay Writing your Essay Community Q&A Research essays are extremely common assignments in high school, college, and graduate school, and are not unheard of in middle school%(29).
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