Individuals with intellectual disabilities ID, formerly mental retardation benefit from the same teaching strategies used to teach people with other learning challenges. One such strategy is to break down learning tasks into small steps. Each learning task is introduced, one step at a time. This avoids overwhelming the student.
So far, we have discussed four effective teaching strategies for people with intellectual disabilities ID, formerly mental retardation. However, these effective teaching strategies did not develop by happenstance.
Applied Behavioral Analysis rests on a solid foundation of research. This research has investigated how humans and animals learn. It comprises a large body of literature known as behavioral psychology.
The ABA approach utilizes two, well-researched learning theories. The ABA does not require great intellectual ability in order for learning to be successful.
In its most basic form, ABA is very simple and common sense. It rewards a person for making a correct choice. Incorrect choices are ignored, or not rewarded. Therefore, students learn by making simple associations between cause and effect.
With repetition, a student learns to associate a correct action with a reward. As such, this correct choice will be repeated. An incorrect action does not earn a reward. When not rewarded, behaviors begin to slowly fade away.
This process is known as extinction. Here is the basic approach for ABA: First, complex tasks or behaviors are broken down into smaller steps.
For instance, suppose a student needs to learn to raise his hand before speaking in a classroom. This might be broken down into five steps: Skills are systematically introduced in small steps. As one small skill is mastered, the next step is introduced.
Students learn by making simple associations between cause and effect. If they respond correctly for that step, they are immediately rewarded. If they respond incorrectly, nothing happens.
This process is known as chaining. Billy Suppose Billy has learned the first step.
The first step is simply to raise his hand. He talks while his hand is raised because he hasn't learned step two yet. Now step two is introduced. Billy will not receive a reward when he raises his hand and is talking. At first, he will be puzzled by this. He previously earned a reward for raising his hand.
He may be instructed to stop talking and will receive a reward when he does.iii Teaching Functional Skills to Individuals with Developmental Disabilities Using Video Prompting Julie Horn ABSTRACT Because many individuals with developmental.
A State Scorecard on Long-Term Services and Supports for Older Adults, People with Physical Disabilities, and Family Caregivers. Aggressive and destructive behaviors are an ongoing challenge for many children, adolescents, and adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (I/DD).
People with disabilities can be appointed to Federal jobs non-competitively through a process called Schedule A. Learn how to be considered for Federal jobs under the noncompetitive process.
People with disabilities may also apply for jobs through the traditional or competitive process. Application Materials Available for Fall Round of the Integrated Supportive Housing Program.
Australia's high rates of imprisonment and re-imprisonment of Aboriginal people with mental and cognitive disabilities is not only shameful, it is entirely predictable and preventable.