Saul McLeodupdated Humanistic, humanism and humanist are terms in psychology relating to an approach which studies the whole person, and the uniqueness of each individual. Essentially, these terms refer the same approach in psychology.
This article discusses the history and basic tenets of humanism as an educational movement. Instructional strategies based upon humanistic principles are described. Counter philosophies are briefly outlined.
Humanism "provides the basis for a fulfilling and ethical life without religion. Humanism as a paradigm, philosophy, or pedagogical approach developed in the s in reaction to the psychoanalysis and behaviorism that dominated psychological thought in the first half of the twentieth century.
Humanism soon became known as the third force in psychology, leading to the birth of the Journal of Humanistic Psychology inthe formation of the Association of Humanistic Psychology inand recognition of humanistic psychology as a field by the American Psychological Association in There are two primary branches of humanism: Secular humanists believe that individuals have everything they need to grow and develop to their fullest potential.
In contrast, religious humanists believe that religion plays an important role in human development. In the educational realm, humanism gained popularity as an alternative to the overly mechanistic approaches to learning and teaching that dominated schools at the time, as well as many cognitive theories of learning and motivation that failed to recognize the importance of student affect in learning McInerney, Most learning theories focus on what learning is and how it takes place, focusing on limited aspects of learning such as acquisition, management, and formation of knowledge Zhou, These theories neglect the "relevance of learning to the learner as a holistic experience of personal growth" Zhou,p.
Humanism, in contrast, "is the only learning theory that emphasizes the reciprocal relationship between learning and the learner and the reciprocal relationship between individual actualization and social transformation that make learning a unique human experience" p.
Humanism views education as a method of fulfilling human potential based upon individuals' needs and interests "Humanism," The humanistic approach emphasizes human freedom, dignity, and potential. Humanist principles are grounded in the following major assumptions: The most well known psychologists contributing to this new paradigm were Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers.
Maslow believed "the process of education should lead to the discovery of identity and understanding of self as a whole person.
Only when lower, more basic order needs are satisfied are individuals capable of attending to higher order needs. Conversely, if the things that satisfy lower order needs disappear, individuals are no longer concerned with higher order needs. For example, children who have witnessed a violent act such as a school shooting and consequently fear for their safety are incapable of learning until they are assured they are safe.
Carl Rogers developed the concept of "client-centered therapy" designed to help clients develop greater-self-direction. Humanistic education is based on similar ideas. Patterson believed "the purpose of education is to develop self-actualizing persons" p.
Valett defined the purpose of humanistic education as the development of "individuals who will be able to live joyous, humane, and meaningful lives" p. Humanistic Education Humanistic education seeks to provide a foundation for personal growth and development that allows individuals to learn throughout their lives in a self-directed way DeCarvalho, In humanism, learning is student-centered and personalized Ediger, Education of the whole child is emphasized, and learning is considered a "personal growth experience" Lamm, Testing may measure specific learning but humanists believe there are many other ways to evaluate learning Ediger, Multiple intelligences Gardner, are recognized and celebrated.
Because of their diverse skills, talents, abilities, all students should not be held accountable to the same standards.Research, Teaching & Case Studies, Transplantation Bioethics and Medical Humanism: Research, Teaching & Case Studies, Transplantation Holdings of the Kornhauser Health Sciences Library on bioethics, medical ethics and humanism as of May Renaissance Humanism.
The time when the term "Humanism" was first adopted is unknown. It is, however, certain that both Italy and the re-adopting of Latin letters as the staple of human culture were responsible for the name "Humanists.".
Secular Humanism research papers focus on the branch of humanism that has to do with belief systems. Various schools of humanism thought can be explicated in a research paper from Paper Masters because all our projects are custom written.
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Research Paper on Humanism July 27, writer Research Papers 0 Humanism (from it. umanista? umano “human,” compare humanus, “human”) is a school of thought – usually spiritual or cultural – based on a philosophy of life based on the individual’s value and the importance of education.
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